The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations’ archive can be found by searching on Wellcome Library’s online catalogue, using the reference: SA/TIH.
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For queries relating to the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations archive, please contact email@example.com or call +44 (0)20 7611 8722.
This list provides an overview of cataloguing progress, indicating which Tavistock Institute projects have now been catalogued and are available for viewing at Wellcome Library. Click on a project name to be redirected to the Wellcome Library online catalogue.
This list is a work-in-progress and will be added to as cataloguing continues throughout this project.
War Officer Selection Board SA/TIH/B/2/1/1, 11 boxes
War Office Selection Boards, or WOSBs, were a scheme devised by British Army psychiatrists during World War II to select potential officers for the British Army. They replaced an earlier method, the Command Interview Board, and were the precursors to today’s Army Officer Selection Boards.
Civil Resettlement Units SA/TIH/B/2/1/2, 2 boxes
Civil Resettlement Units, or CRUs, were a scheme created during World War II to help British Army servicemen who had been prisoners of war (POWs) to return to civilian life, and to help their families and communities to adjust to having them back.
Glacier Metal Company (Glacier Project) SA/TIH/B/2/2, 1 box.
The project saw research work into the social aspects of industrial organisation, undertaken jointly by the company and the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. The research considered the labour turnover process in two factories, and served to address industrial relations problems, identifying culture as a key element for intervention in organisational life.
National Coal Board (NCB) SA/TIH/B/2/3, 11 boxes
A sociotechnical approach, the project explored how workers responded to changing technologies in the workplace, following the shift from conventional to composite working in longwall coal mining, including investigations into how these changes impacted work satisfaction, productivity, and employee engagement.
The textile industry studies adopted socio-technical methods developed during the National Coal Board studies, and applied these to cotton mills. The Tavistock Institute worked with the Calico Mills in a Development Group to address the general social and production problems of the mills.
Banstead Hospital SA/TIH/B/2/5, 1 box
Tavistock Institute conducted a field study of the hospital’s systems, structure and organisation with emphasis placed on the governmental or management aspects of the hospital structure.
Napsbury Hospital SA/TIH/B/2/6, 3 files
A study of the mental health institution was conducted by the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. The work consisted of interviews with clinical and domestic staff and field work concerned with the organisation, systems and structure of the hospital.
Royal Wanstead School SA/TIH/B/2/7, 2 files
A Tavistock Institute study of a residential educational institution for vulnerable young people facing abuse, neglect or trauma at home. The study investigated and assisted in the rebuilding of Royal Wanstead junior schools at Sawbridgeworth, and how to provide the most acceptable conditions for younger children at the school.
Automation Project SA/TIH/B/2/8, 5 boxes
This project focused on examples of automated technologies in the process industries which affect the character of the enterprise as a whole in its external as well as its internal relations. A series of organisations were chosen in which a high level of automation has been established for different lengths of time.
Unilever Companies’ Management Development Scheme (UCMDS) SA/TIH/B/2/9, 14 boxes
The Unilever Companies’ Management Development Scheme (UCMDS) was in introduced in 1952, replacing the Management Training Scheme which had been in operation since 1927. The aim was to identify and appraise the performance and potential of managers, and to recruit strong management potential into the organisation.
Evidence provided to the Salmon Committee on senior nursing staff structure SA/TIH/B/2/10, 1 file
Papers and correspondence relating to Isabel Menzies’ involvement in the Salmon Committee Report on senior nursing staff structure, to which she provided written evidence on behalf of the Tavistock Institute.
Research into the Principles of Kitchen Design SA/TIH/B/2/11, 1 file
Papers relating to a study proposed by Isabel Menzies into the principles of kitchen design.
Farmers’ Weekly, Reality Magazine consumer research SA/TIH/B/2/12, 1 file
Isabel Menzies’ consumer research on behalf of Tavistock Institute into a new magazine for women, Reality published by Farmers’ Weekly.
Unilever Kitchen Audit SA/TIH/B/2/13, 3 files
The Kitchen Audit aimed at increasing Unilever’s ability to anticipate and response to consumer trends in food eating patterns. Research was undertaken by the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in cooperation with the Unilever Marketing Division on the motivation of consumer behaviour and attitudes towards food
A pilot study was conducted by The Industrial Welfare Society and The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, at the Royal Hospital, Wolverhampton, of domestic workers in the hospital (Aug-Sep 1947).
LCC / Tavistock Clinic “Neighbourhood Clinic” Project SA/TIH/B/2/15, 1 file
In 1953, the Joint Working Party of the LCC and Tavistock Clinic on Preventative Mental Health in the Maternity and Child Welfare Service was formed. in 1957, a working party was established which included Clinic staff (a psychiatrist, a psychiatric social worker, a child psychotherapist, and a psychologist), as well as a member of the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in an advisory capacity. This group was established to plan how to set up the new neighbourhood service, and how to integrate this new project with the other main clinic activities.
A K Rice consultancy work: 1960s SA/TIH/B/2/16, 1 box
Includes: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR); Wates Ltd: Building and Civil Engineering Contractors; Chestnut Lodge, Rockville, Maryland, consultancy; British International Paper Ltd consultancy; Holloway Prison: proposal for a study of a local prison as a total system; Bernard Wardle and Co Ltd consultancy; Donald Macpherson and Co consultancy; Industrial Training Service (ITS) consultancy; Staflex International Ltd; Yale University School of Medicine; The Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Reeves and Sons Ltd SA/TIH/B/2/17, 3 files
The object of this study was to examine recruitment and selection at Reeves and Sons Ltd, a manufacturer of art materials, examining four supervisory posts, two in manufacturing and two in sales.
Hovis/ McDougall Ltd SA/TIH/B/2/18, 3 files
A K Rice and Eric Miller undertook work on behalf of the Tavistock Institute with Hovis / McDougall Ltd, to assiste with recruitment and selection at the company.
Walls (Ice Cream) Project SA/TIH/B/2/19, 1 file (in 2 parts)
A study of Walls (Ice Cream) depots and their structure and organisation, conducted by Eric Miller and Gurth Higgin.
Martins the Cleaners SA/TIH/B/2/20, 3 files
A survey of the marketing approach of Martins the Cleaners.
Civil Service Dispersal Project SA/TIH/B/2/21, 13 boxes
The Tavistock Institute undertook a project to investigate the human aspects of the dispersal of Civil Service departments from London to other areas of the country. Following a review by Sir Gilbert Flemming in 1963 self-contained units of work were dispersed from London. In 1971, Sir Henry Hardman undertook a review of further dispersal possibilities. One of the studies forming part of the Hardman Review was the commission of the Tavistock Institute of Human Resources to undertake research and make recommendations.
Shell-Mex and BP SA/TIH/B/22, 4 boxes
In 1965 Shell launched a project directed towards the restructure of the organisation to improve attitudes among its personnel and implement a participative management philosophy and style. The Tavistock Institute were employed to aid the senior management team of Shell in implementing the new organisational style.
British European Airways SA/TIH/B/2/23, 2 boxes
The Tavistock Institute worked alongside a committee consisting of members of senior management from British European Airways to undertake an organisational change study within the environment of a transport company.
Richard Thomas & Baldwins Project SA/TIH/B/2/24, 10 boxes
The Richard Thomas & Baldwins project was an action research opportunity to collaborate in the building of the most modern steelworks in Europe. The TIHR worked alongside the company to break existing management constraints and develop a new organisational structure to best match the modern technologies available.
Pet Ownership and Pet Food Advertising SA/TIH/B/2/25, 1 box
A collaborative project with Intersacan, Bensons and Spillers to investigate the attitudes of pet owners towards the advertisement of pet food. The Tavistock Institute were also involved in related projects to assess the nature of pet ownership, including the human factors in the decision to own a pet and which type of pet to own, and the role of the pet in family relations.
Richmond Child Guidance Clinic SA/TIH/B/2/26, 1 file
Papers relating to an experiment by Eric Miller and Robin Higgins aimed at increasing the effectiveness of Richmond Child Guidance Clinic in dealing with referrals and re-conceptualising treatment as a social process to best relate to the needs of children.
Associated British Wallpaper Manufacturers SA/TIH/B/2/27, 1 file
A collaborative project undertaken by A.K. Rice on behalf of the Tavistock Institute Centre for Applied Social Research to determine the qualities and personality characteristics that constitute a good wallpaper set maker.
Bayer Products SA/TIH/B/2/28, 1 file
A study of the social and psychological factors in the role of the Bayer Products representative.
Aberfan Disaster SA/TIH/B/2/29, 1 file
A consultative project working in Aberfan with the co-ordinating committee representing the community. Tavistock Institute offered consultation and support to individuals and groups and aided communication with official bodies.
Esso Tankers, Marine Department Project SA/TIH/B/2/30, 4 files
With the emergence of integrated crews and new tanker designs, the Tavistock Institute Human Resources Centre was invited to undertake a collaborative research study to gain further understanding of the needs of seafarers at work in order that the Esso Marine Department could relate its personnel policies more accurately to the realities of the situations faced while working at sea.
Lyons Career Planning SA/TIH/B/2/31, 1 file
Hugh Murray undertook work on behalf of the Tavistcok Institute to assist J. Lyons and Co. with developing and implementing a careers development plan.
Walls (ice Cream) Labour Turnover project SA/TIH/B/2/32, 1 file
A study concerning the problems of labour turnover at Walls (Ice Cream).
Evershed & Vignoles SA/TIH/B/2/33, 1 file
Project to improve the effectiveness of supervision at Evershed & Vignoles.
Sarabhai Chemicals Group project SA/TIH/B/2/34, 1 file
A.K. Rice undertook work on behalf of the Tavistock Institute to assist Sarabhai Chemicals and its various associated companies in a reorganisation project.
Staflex International Ltd SA/TIH/B/2/35, 1 file
Work undertaken by J.M.M. Hill on behalf of the Tavistock Institute to develop an appraisal system for roles within the organisation.
British Petroleum (BP) Project SA/TIH/B/2/36 1 file (in 2 parts)
Geraldine Gwynne undertook collaborative work with the Central Staff Department of British Petroleum to conduct a survey of attitudes of staff towards the organisation.
Communications in the Building Industry research project SA/TIH/B/2/37, 1 file
This was a project undertaken collaboratively by the National Consultative Committee of Architects, Quantity Surveyors & Builders and the Tavistock Institute Human Resources Centre and Institute of Operational Research to assess the issues of communication in the building industry, primarily between Surveyors, Architects and Builders.
Chestnut Lodge SA/TIH/B/2/38, 1 file
A.K. Rice undertook work on behalf of the Tavistock Institute to assist in the reorganisation of Chestnut Lodge Inc. America; a psychotheraputic treatment centre for patients with physcosis and other mental illnesses.
Iliffe-NTP International, SA/TIH/B/2/39, 1 file
Eric Miller undertook work on behalf of the Tavistock Institute to assist a research project on the interpersonal communications in the subsidiary publishing companies of Iliffe-NTP International.
Lever Brothers and Associates SA/TIH/B/2/40, 1 file (in 2 parts)
This project was a collaborative project with Lever Brothers & Associates to assess the issues and opportunities involved in the reorganisation of the company, including the amalgamation of companies to create unity in Unilever, and the development of new roles for its representatives.
Scot Meat Products recruitment project SA/TIH/B/2/41, 1 file
A project undertaken by J.M.M. Hill to assist with recruiting personnel for Scot Meat.
Clarkson Booker Holiday Company SA/TIH/B/2/42, 1 box
In 1965, Clarkson Booker Holiday Company sought the assistance of the Tavistock Institute to assess and analyse the brochures used in advertising their holidays in relation to competing companies.
Irish Tourist Board SA/TIH/B/2/43, 1 box
The Tavistock Institute undertook research on behalf of the Irish Tourist Board to assess reasons for taking holidays, the feelings and motivations behind taking a holiday, and attitudes towards holidays in Ireland itself.
Lewis Group: Departmental Store Usage SA/TIH/B/2/44, 1 box
The Lewis Group who owned department stores across the country, mainly in the North, approached the Tavistock Institute to assist in research to elucidate trends in department store usage and to assess the Lewis Group image, particularly in the south of the country where they had less of a presence.
Worker Participation in British Rail SA/TIH/B/2/45, 1 file (in 2 parts)
The Tavistock Institute was approached by the Ministry of Transport to collaborate with British Railways to assess the opinions and attitudes of British Rail employees to worker participation.
Mental Health Services: Centre de Sante Publique at Soissons SA/TIH/B/2/46, 1 box
Isabel Menzies undertook work on behalf of the Tavistock Institute, in collaboration with the World Health Organisation, to assess the work of child guidance clinics in Soissons, France and make recommendations about future developments in mental health work with children.
Teeside University Study SA/TIH/B/2/47, 1 file
Hugh Murray undertook work on behalf of the Tavistock Institute Human Resources Centre to assess the social aspects of the plan to develop a university on a site in Teeside.
Civil Service Department: Scientists and Technologists SA/TIH/B/2/48, 2 files
The Ministry of Technology approached the Tavistock Institute to assist with research on the mobility of scientists and technologists between different sectors of the economy and the factors which promote or impede their movement.
Fulton Committee on the Civil Service SA/TIH/B/2/49, 1 file (in 2 parts)
The Fulton Committee on Civil Service recruitment and selection approached the Tavistock Institute to provide evidence and advise on new methods of selection for the Civil Service recruitment procedure.
Study of managerial decision-making SA/TIH/B/2/50, 2 files
Frank Heller directed an international project on behalf of the Tavistock Institute Human Resources Centre, sponsored by the Social Science Research Council, to research and analyse the management processes at senior levels in a variety of companies in industrialised countries across Europe and in America.
Fairhaven, SA/TIH/B/2/51, 5 boxes- Fairhaven was a hostel for ‘educationally sub-normal’ boys aged 16-19 in Blackheath, London. In 1974, MIND (formerly the National Association for Mental Health (NAMH)) reviewed its policies on residential care and in 1975 implemented a pilot project at Fairhaven to promote non-institutional living and reverse the process of institutionalisation on young, vulnerable adults. MIND aimed to promote the focus on the development of a new organisational model as much as on the individual and their progress. Elliot Stern of the Tavistock Institute worked with staff and residents to re-model the organisation of the hostel, including the physical layout of the building, resident participation and responsibility, and staff organisation and responsibilities.
Jebsens, SA/TIH/B/2/52, 12 boxes The Jebsens ‘Project of Change’ was a collaborative enterprise undertaken by the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, Jebsens management, the National Union of Seamen, and the Merchant Navy and Airline Officers Association. The project had a range of objectives, with particular focus on improving the working and social life of those at sea, as well as improving and establishing connections between seafarers and on shore workers. The primary concerns of the project were community building on board vessels, and self-management by the shipboard community.
Leverhulme Foundation, SA/TIH/B/2/53, 3 boxes The objective of the Leverhulme funded project was to determine whether indicators of family need could be developed, quantified and used as a basis for social planning at local and national levels. The research conducted primarily took the family as the unit of study as a social-psychological organisation and a socio-technical organisation.
Mexico Organisational Development, SA/TIH/B/2/54, 7 boxes From 1968 to 2000, Eric Miller was involved on behalf of the Tavistock Institute in many projects in Mexico that aimed to enhance the provisions for, and quality of life of, a majority of the country’s population, particularly those in rural and hitherto isolated communities and beyond the main industrial cities. Miller’s work focused on the provision of electricity and water and the organisational development of these systems. His work also involved a consultative role on the rural development programme that was being rolled out across the country.
National Union of Seamen, SA/TIH/B/2/55, 4 boxes- Leading on from the Jebsens project, the Tavistock Institute undertook a project with the National Union of Seamen focused on increasing membership participation in the Union, and improving the working life of members. The research focused primarily on individual and group experiences and impressions of the Union at a local branch level, as well as Union policy at the Executive Council level.
Nitrigin Eireann Teoranta (NET), SA/TIH/B/2/56, 16 boxes- A collaborative project to improve industrial relations within the Irish Fertiliser company, including consultancy on welfare facilities and working conditions, job security and conditions of employment, career development and training, industrial relations and democracy, and company objectives and philosophy. The project dealt simultaneously with all sections and all levels of the organisation to develop a more effective structure and processes for industrial participation.
DHSS: Stress and Satisfaction project, SA/TIH/B/2/57, 1 box- An action research project commissioned by the Department of Health and Social Security to investigate the relationships between social security officers and claimants. The primary aim was to assess levels of stress and satisfaction on both sides of the service, and the factors that influenced this.
Cotswold Community: Peper Harow Foundation negotiations, SA/TIH/B/2/58, 2 files- An organisational consultancy project in which Eric Miller oversaw and advised on negotiations for the sale of the Cotswold Community therapeutic school for emotionally unintegrated boys. Miller advised on steps to be taken to facilitate greater self-management and development within the Community.
Chelmsford Cathedral Centre for Research and Training, SA/TIH/B/2/59, 1 file- Alongside members of the Chelmsford Cathedral Centre for Research and Training, Eric Miller led a consultancy project to investigate and advise on the role of the Cathedral in light of its changing environment and the needs of surrounding communities. The project was primarily an organisational restructuring project.
Fulbourn Hospital: Innovation Project, SA/TIH/B/2/60, 1 box- This was an action research project to develop processes of self-innovation in hospitals. Primarily, the project focused on increasing the awareness of hospital staff of the contribution of research in facilitating self-appraisal within hospitals, both in Fulbourn and on a wider scale. The project took place in three stages over three years and involved staff members of all levels in research on topics and issues that affected their own practice in order to facilitate continued self-development and organisational innovation within the hospital. After success at Fulbourn, at the end of 1973, the project developed further into a broader organisational development project designed to disseminate the approach to hospital innovation to a number of other suitable hospitals.
British Leyland Action Monitoring Project, SA/TIH/B/2/61, 2 boxes- This was a collaborative project with British Leyland and Sheffield University using an action-monitoring approach to assist and advise both union representatives and company management on issues surrounding worker participation and industrial relations.
Diplomatic Service Wives Association, SA/TIH/B/2/62, 1 file- A project undertaken with the Committee of the Diplomatic Service Wives’ Association to explore the issues affecting Diplomatic Wives leading to stress related to occupying such a position. The main contribution of the Tavistock Institute in this project was to help to open up discussions about factors affecting Diplomatic Wives and to highlight some of the underlying issues contributing to these.
The People Programme at Boc Murex, SA/TIH/B/2/63, 1 file
Geriatric Hospital Care Project, SA/TIH/B/2/64, 6 files- Originating from a request by the Department of Health and Social Security, the project was an action research project to collaborate with geriatric hospitals to facilitate further understanding of problems arising from the care of the elderly, including the effects of the stresses of the task on nurses and the nurse-patient relationship. The project was envisioned in two phases: Firstly, research within Cowley Road Hospital, Oxford to build organisational models to fit the hospital’s task, and the selection of a model to experiment with, and secondly, validation of the models in other hospitals and the dissemination of training and participation in the models.
Job Design and Work Evaluation Programme: Quality of Working Life, SA/TIH/B/2/65, 1 box- This was an umbrella programme of evaluation of a number of projects already being undertaken by the Tavistock Institute. It was an action research programme, mainly within the socio-technical framework and brought together a number of individual projects into a wider programme to derive common principles and techniques for job design and work organisation. The central focus was on the content of jobs, their organisation, and its effect on individual satisfaction in order to add new dimensions to existing work on the better use of manpower and the improvement of the working environment.
Attitudes towards the handicapped, SA/TIH/B/2/66, 1 file- This was a project to develop a new approach to the problem of procuring constructive change in attitudes towards the handicapped within a given social system. . The project adopted an action research methodology involving relevant professional workers, and aimed to be able to translate theoretical findings directly into practice and training. Particularly, the aim was to contribute to understanding transitional problems in the care of the handicapped e,g, between familial and professional support.
Quality of Care Project, SA/TIH/B/2/67, 1 file- The Quality of Care project was a collaborative project with the DHSS Development Group, the Social Work Service in the North West Region, and local authorities to improve residential childcare services in the region. The project was undertaken through a series of seminars.
Reckitt’s Colours: System Future project, SA/TIH/B/2/68. 1 file- This was a consultative project on employee consultation and participation, with members of the Tavistock Institute working directly with the labour force of the organisation in order to propose a process of democratisation within the workplace. The project was met with high resistance from both the workforce, and later, union representatives.
South East Thames Regional Health Authority project, SA/TIH/B/2/69, 1 file- Stemming from knowledge of projects such as the Fulbourn Hospital Innovation project (SA/TIH/B/2/60) and the Geriatric Hospital Care project (SA/TIH/B/2/64), this was another collaborative project to develop a programme of activities in the region designed to improve services in psychiatric, mental handicap and geriatric fields of care. The project also had foundations in recent enquiries into St. Augustine’s Hospital and Tooting Beck mental hospital.
Balderton Hospital Project, SA/TIH/B/2/70, 1 file- Funded by the Department for Health and Social Security, the Balderton Hospital project was a collaborative project to develop a programme of rehabilitational therapy for patients, and to study the interface between the hospital and the community. The project was one of the series of projects undertaken by the Tavistock Institute contributing to research in long and short stay hospitals.
Young Volunteer Force Foundation, SA/TIH/B/2/71, 4 files- The Young Volunteer Force Foundation was set up in 1969 as an agency for setting up volunteer clearing houses. However, the YVFF began to move more towards conducting neighbourhood work within community groups, particularly those in deprived local areas. The project sought to develop and clarify the role of the central management staff and departments to reflect, support and maintain the changing focus of the foundation towards field work of this nature. The Tavistock Institute, was approached to contribute an external perspective to the organisational review.
Pedigree Petfoods, SA/TIH/B/2/72, 1 file- This was an organisational design project undertaken within a socio-technical framework. The objective of the project was the design and implementation of a work organisation at the new Peterborough plant of the company, and the development of a philosophy of management consistent with new and changing values in industry and society. Much of the consultation work by the Institute was conducted through meetings with a steering group consisting of members of Pedigree Petfoods.
Use of Government Scientists: Ageing and Effectiveness, SA/TIH/B/2/73, 1 file- This was a collaborative project with the Behavioural Sciences Research Division of the Civil Services Department. Following a paper by Lord Rothschild which argued that creativity wanes in later life, the Civil Service Department was invited to conduct a study of the relationship between age and effectiveness amongst scientists working in Government laboratories. The project addressed three principal issues: 1. The importance of creativity to scientific effectiveness; 2. Whether creativity does wane with advancing age; 3. Whether, if creativity does decline, does scientific effectiveness decline in the same way. Research was conducted through individual interviews and group meetings and was a supplementary part of the development of a manpower planning scheme within the Civil Services Department.
Preston Baxi Heating project, SA/TIH/B/2/74, 1 file- This was an organisational structure project in order to assess the level to which shop floor workers were involved in the decisions that affected their welfare at work, and to develop ‘good’ management practices by which involvement of the work force could be facilitated and maintained.
Massey-Ferguson Communications project, SA/TIH/B/2/75, 1 file- This project stemmed from a period of labour disputes within the company. Michael Foster and Don Bryant, on behalf of the Tavistock Institute were consulted to undertake work to assess the communication problems through interviews with representatives of main interest groups and explorations of main communication routes and flows.
The “Role of the Management Development Adviser” Project, SA/TIH/B/2/76. 2 files- This was an action research project undertaken under a grant from the Training Services Agency of the Department of Employment to explore the role of the management development adviser in industry. The project benefited from collaboration with a number of major organisations known to have relatively advanced management development arrangements and involved more intensive work with a smaller sample of organisations through observations, seminars and interviews.
Open University Systems Group project, SA/TIH/B/2/77, 4 files- Elliot Stern was approached by the Systems Group of the Faculty of Technology to study the problems and strains experienced in the relations between the group and the rest of the Faculty, with particular focus on understanding organisational intervention through participation. The aim was to advise on an organisational structure in which all jobs and roles could be facilitated and supported within the wider and diverse environment of the University.
Schizophrenia and Employment, SA/TIH/B/2/78, 2 files- Motivated by high levels of unemployment among schizophrenics undergoing rehabilitation, and general concern with quality of working life, this was a project in collaboration with the Nuffield Foundation to identify and explore the nature of problems faced by schizophrenics during rehabilitative efforts to find and retain suitable and satisfying work. Alongside this, there was also a secondary aim to assess and develop the roles of organisations and institutions involved in such rehabilitation and how they met the demands places on them throughout the process.
Working Association of Mothers (WAM), SA/TIH/B/2/79, 1 file- The Working Association of Mothers was a self help co-operative to provide solutions for and share experiences amongst mothers struggling to cope with various aspects of motherhood. The project undertaken by the Tavistock Institute was a survey by way of questionnaire of members of the Working Mothers Association Brighton branch, including suggestions on ways in which the organisation of WAM could be better suited to the needs of its members.
Xerox Research UK, SA/TIH/B/2/80, 3 files- This was a project undertaken by Eric Miller, Alistair Bain and Hugh Murray on behalf of the Tavistock Institute using a socio-technical methodology to explore the job design and organisation for the creation of new products, along with the implications for marketing, selling and promoting new products as socio-technical products. The project was conducted in parallel with a major shift in the product strategy of the organisations, from copiers to office information systems.
Collet, Dickenson, Pearce and Partners Advertising: Pets Project, SA/TIH/B/2/81, 1 file- This was a project undertaken by Michael Foster on behalf of the Tavistock Institute to investigate the role and function of the pet, particularly the cat, within the family, and the social and psychological forces underlying the keeping of pets. The research was conducted through group discussions and individual interview of cat owners and drew upon earlier work by the Tavistock Institute on the role of the pet and pet food advertising (see SA/TIH/B/25).
BBC ‘Life Inside’ Project, SA/TIH/B/2/82, 1 file- A project to research and present a series of programmes on BBC Radio 3 relating to life inside institutions, including an examination of the characteristics of institutionalised living. The main aim of the series was to promote a better understanding of work within such environments among those professionally involved, and to explore ways of adjusting organisation and arrangements in order to improve the quality of working lives. The programmes were presented by Eric Miller.
Joint Enterprises in Social Services: The Cresset Project, SA/TIH/B/2/83, 3 files- The Cresset Project was an action research project initially funded by the Department of Health and Social Security to undertake research to inform the creation of models to facilitate contributions to community mental health and the integration of the physically handicapped and elderly with the able-bodied. Following the initial report on the Cresset, the project was expanded to incorporate research more generally on the potentials and issues of joint service delivery. The Tavistock institute, represented by Eric Miller, Michael Norris, and John Friend, were awarded a grant by the Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust in order to carry out the second stage of the project.
Human Elements in Shipping Casualties Project, SA/TIH/B/2/84, 15 boxes- The Human Elements in Shipping Casualties Project was a project funded by the Department of Trade, and later the Department of Transport, and undertaken by a project team from the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. The project sought to highlight the interactions between human elements in shipping casualties and the environmental and technical factors involved. The project looked at several different categories of casualty, including contacts, collisions, groundings, fires and explosions, machinery damage, and heavy weather damage.
The project took place in two distinct phases, with Phase I focusing primarily on quantitative research into the factors behind shipping casualties, and Phase II taking a more qualitative approach to research in order to assess the views and experiences of those involved in, and at risk of, shipping casualties. The primary sources of data for analysis, particularly for Phase I of the project, were the Marine Directorate’s casualty files, and the project, in both stages, aimed to illuminate deficiencies in the recording process of casualties and suggest new methods of working towards a more standardised and comprehensive process of record keeping with a view to identifying how this could help with preventative measures.
Central Electricity Generating Board Project, SA/TIH/B/2/85, 6 files- This was a TIHR project to carry out a study of the relationships on large construction sites, particularly those associated with power station construction. The main task involved an analysis of the sociology of the workplace and of the social psychology of its work people in order to investigate the human relations factors governing site employment. The task involved discussions with a cross section of parties involved, including key personnel within the CEGB, principal contractors, client organisations, relevant trade unions, and representative samples of work people, their supervisors and managers. Topics of interest throughout interviews and communications included recruitment, induction, training, career development and expectations, job satisfaction, working conditions, influence of payment systems, and experiences both on and off the job.
Pilot studies were planned to be conducted at Littlebrook ‘D’ and Grain Power Station sites in order to develop the methods and procedures for a more comprehensive survey, however relationships with Trade Union representatives at Grain were weak and this pilot study never went ahead. The pilot study at Littlebrook ‘D’ aimed to assess the factors contributing to the morale and effectiveness of the management and work people involved.
Rural Employment and Youth Unemployment Project, SA/TIH/B/2/86, 8 boxes- In 1983, the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations was approached by the Development Commission for some preliminary ideas surrounding factors affecting rural youth unemployment. A grant was approved, and in 1984, the TIHR commenced a one year pilot research project to assess these factors with the aim of influencing and informing policy to lead rural employers to take on more young people as employees. The study considered economic costs and benefits to employers, availability of training, and the attitudes of young people.
The objectives of the project were: to describe four different rural local labour markets as they related to youth employment and unemployment, to describe the way a sample of employers in each local area recruited, trained, placed and progressed young employees, to identify the constraints experienced by these employers on the recruitment and employment of young people, to begin to describe the structure of local rural youth labour markets on the basis of the local studies, and to begin to understand how young people participated in the local economy and what were some of their available range of work identities. The four areas selected for field work and case studies were Hambleton, North Yorkshire, Harborough, Leicestershire, Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, and North Norfolk.
The Tavistock Institute project team undertook detailed interviews with employers to assess their attitudes to employing young people, and their understanding of the prospects for youth employment as a whole. Questionnaires were also completed by varying groups of young people in each area to understand their own attitudes to employment opportunities, including what they looked for in a job, and issues that prevented them from finding and keeping a job.
Self-Help Alliance Project, SA/TIH/B/2/87, 14 boxes- The Self-Help Alliance(SHA) Project was one of the DHSS “Helping the Community to Care” initiatives announced in 1984. The Self-Help Alliance were tasked with dispensing funds to a number of local development agencies to establish self-help support projects and to oversee the programme as a whole. Local projects had to agree to take part in an evaluation element in order to secure funding from the SHA. The funding was primarily used in the training of Development Officers appointed in each local project.
In 1985, a project team from the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations was selected to undertake the research and evaluation element of the project and worked on this from January 1986 to November 1989. The TIHR team adopted a developmental approach to evaluation and encouraged self-evaluation among the local projects as well as also retaining a more conventional role through the design, distribution and analysis of surveys and reports. A series of research groups was formed to explore specific themes and issues that came out of the progress and evaluation of the local projects. The themes explored included effective self-help support work in different contexts, the distinctive aspects of self-help work with ethnic communities, and particular problems of self-help work in rural contexts and how these differed to self-help in urban contexts.
The Tavistock Institute team conducted several rounds of visits to a pilot group of local self-help projects in varying areas. The first round of familiarisation visits were conducted to collect initial data regarding the background, history and intentions of the individual projects, as well as on the characteristics of the local area. The second round of visits aimed to explore what self-evaluation would mean in practice, with discussions focused on strategies and frameworks, as well as the record-keeping practices required to facilitate effective evaluation. The third round of visits were to test out the record-keeping practices and strategies developed. The Tavistock Institute team also undertook further rounds of visits, as well as exit interviews with Development Officers and Project Managers when they left projects, or when projects came to an end.
The Self-Help Alliance Project was an important project in the development of the evaluative function of the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. Their developmental approach to evaluation, especially their encouragement of self-evaluation, can be seen in other projects such as the Enterprise in Higher Education Initiative (see SA/TIH/B/2/90).
Children Leaving Care Project, SA/TIH/B/2/88, 17 files- The Children Leaving Care project was a research project looking into the experiences of adolescents primarily between the ages of 16 and 19 leaving care in England and Wales and evaluating special projects set up to make the transition less problematic. The primary task was to delineate the issues surrounding the lack of access these children have to normal privileges and ‘rites of passage’ with regard to housing and social relationships. Special attention was paid to minority groups such as young unmarried mothers and the mentally and physically handicapped. The project considered the effect of external facts such as previous experiences of care and the attitudes of family and social workers.
The working reports produced by the project cover the range and depth of the issues facing these young people in the care of the social authorities and rely on statistics, research and the experiences of young people who have been through or are going through the transition period. In order to collect this information the researchers built up relationships with subjects who were either in the process of leaving care or had previously been through this process as well as those working towards the process such as social workers and conducting interviews from which experiences were condensed into working reports.
Open Tech Initiative, SA/TIH/B/2/89, 10 boxes- The Open Tech initiative was a parallel to the Open University model of education. The project focused on opening up the opportunities and reducing barriers to access for training and learning for people at a technician grade and above, but specifically not management training. The Open Tech Initiative commissioned projects around the country led by industrial companies and colleges. The projects took an evaluative role as well as a consultant role as those working on it studied and consulted upon around 65 to 70 different projects over a three and a half year period. The objectives for the initiative were on sorted on three levels, general objectives over the entire initiative looking at all of the projects as a whole, objectives for the types of projects they put effort into and finally the objectives of each specific project.
In the first phase of the Learning at Work Development Project a study was made of the opportunities for learning at work in work experience schemes in four areas of the country. This information was used to create a framework for looking at creating a work environment that encouraged young people to learn. The second phase of the project was used to trial and develop initiatives based on the information gathered in phase one.
Enterprise in Higher Education Initiative, SA/TIH/B/2/90, 7 boxes- Enterprise in Higher Education (EHE) aimed to integrate business training and enterprise into the mainstream curricula of arts, science and social sciences within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). It was funded by the Training Agency of the Government’s Education Department. In the first year, eighty-six funding proposals for pilot projects were submitted, with eleven selected to launch their EHE initiative. Each institution selected was required to demonstrate that they could introduce enterprise into the curriculum using links with employers, and that they had a strategy for staff development to deliver the enterprise curriculum.
The overall aim of the EHE initiative was to develop more enterprising graduates and enhance the transferable personal skills of graduates from all disciplines. These skills were to be acquired through project-based work designed to be undertaken in a real economic setting to be jointly assessed by employers and HEIs. EHE also aimed to contribute to the production of graduates aware of the needs of industry and commerce with direct experience of the world of work, who would ultimately leave higher education better prepared for working life.
The EHE initiative had a strong evaluative element and a project team from the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations was commissioned by the Training Agency (TA) to provide support to HEIs with the local evaluation of their programmes. The team from the Tavistock Institute worked alongside local evaluators to try and make evaluation part and process of the programme rather than an externally enforced element. Tavistock advised on the methods and processes of local evaluation, but the HEIs set out their own evaluative strategies and questions in order to highlight areas of improvement in their own individual initiatives.
Evaluation and analysis was required by the TA for management purposes and audit purposes to prove to the Treasury that it was worth the money being put into it. The TA also required this evaluation to assess whether the scheme could be rolled out nationally and to support subsequent rounds of funding. The purposes of the evaluation were to ascertain whether the objectives of EHE were met, assess the cost effectiveness of the initiative, feed back information from EHE projects to assist in the development of others, enable the Training Commission to monitor progress generally and plan for future provision, and to allow assessment of the impact of EHE on the labour market.
Computer Access for London’s Communities, SA/TIH/B/2/91, 1 file- Computer Access for London’s Communities was a project looking into the possibility of a grant to the London Voluntary Services for suitable staff, equipment and related software and consultancy to undertake a programme of research into the impact of microcomputers upon employment in the Greater London area, the actual and potential use of this technology in the public and private sector, the consequences for training for the London labour Market and its effective use by voluntary and community groups. The Project was a two year action research programme with a staff of 18. Papers include reports, correspondence and field notes.
Health Education Council (Stress), SA/TIH/B/2/92, 1 file- Project focussing on physical and psychological stress at work also known as Action on Stress at Work. The focus was specifically stress cause at or by a participants work. The project was run by a working party who focussed on identifying the causes of stress within organisations. The aim was to demonstrate that is cost effective to deal with stress at an organizational level and to produce recommendations to help organisations. The papers comprise of reports, meeting notes and correspondence.
Newham Council, SA/TIH/B/2/93, 22 files- The Newham Council project was a year long agreement with Newham council to act as consultants in order to analyse the workplace and the workers in order to use the information gained to unveil issues of specific teams and use the information to maximise the productivity of the departments. The project was split into three phases which included interviews with council staff and working group meetings. However the project was left unfinished when Newham council chose not to continue with Phase three of the proposed plan.
European Economic Community, SA/TIH/B/2/94, 1 file- The European Economic Community project focussed in part on the influence of workers’ participation on the improvement of working conditions in the Republic of Ireland. The file contains bibliography information for the final report and abstracts from the texts used in the bibliography.
Addiction Research Centre, SA/TIH/B/2/95, 1 file- “Programme Development: Addiction Studies” an application to the Institute Development Fund for support in establishing an addiction research centre as part of an international network of interdisciplinary studies into alcohol-related problems and other substance misuse/abuse. Includes a paper, proposal and some correspondence.
Child Abuse, SA/TIH/B/2/96, 1 file- “Evaluation Strategies for Local Economic and Employment Development”, “Self Help Alliance: Local Support Projects for Self Help Groups, Outline Plan for the Research and Evaluation Component”, handwritten notes and “Proposals about the function and meaning of the independent researcher’s – monitoring and evaluating – role in the establishment and operation of the multi-disciplinary child abuse unit in the East Sussex county council, social services department.
Courage Brewery, SA/TIH/B/2/97, 1 file- The Courage Brewery project focussed on the opening of the Courage Brewery and the design, setting up and forms of work in the organisation. The papers include suggested questions, correspondence, papers on the roles of participants and records of meetings.
Citizen’s Grievances, SA/TIH/B/2/98, 1 file- Research project on citizen grievances and administrative action in Hospitals focusing on the effectiveness of these procedures. Papers include proposals and correspondence with the Economic and Social Research Council.
John Hadland LTD, SA/TIH/B/2/99, 1 file- The John Hadland LTD project focussed on the named photographic instrumentation company and looked at company structure. The file also contains papers on Psychological proposals for central heating and some unrelated papers listing Tavistock papers.
Esso and Construction, SA/TIH/B/2/100, 1 file- Papers relating to the feasibility of a study into the construction management and Esso specifically. Looking into attitude monitoring to open up issues and generate a discussion.
Bennenden School, SA/TIH/B/2/101, 1 file- The Bennenden School project with goals towards raising academic standards, giving the students (all girls) more life skills, teaching “appropriate “female qualities and values””, raising self-esteem, better teaching, more opportunities for the girls, and a variety of other related goals, all of which are listed in the file. The project included strategies for change in the school, areas for improvement, papers on the school’s areas of action, correspondence with Tavistock, reports and notes.
Camden Association for Mental Health, SA/TIH/B/2/102, 1 file- This material related to a conference held for members of the Camden Association for Mental Health in order to enable the various elements on the association to work jointly at analysing its functioning at that time and exploring and evaluating possible directions of future development. The items include the proposal for a weekend conference and report on the conference.
Christian Aid, SA/TIH/B/2/103, 1 file- Tavistock was asked to help with training of Regional Group Heads in the new organisation. The file Includes working notes and handwritten and typed notes.
Community Service Volunteers, SA/TIH/B/2/104, 1 file- Tavistock worked with the Community Service Volunteers to create a two day non-residential workshop on “Managing Uncertainty” with a purpose of helping attendees to become more effective in their various roles. The file includes correspondence and notes on the workshop exercises.
The Institution of Civil Engineers, SA/TIH/B/2/105, 1 file- Paper relating to a symposium held for the Institute of Civil Engineers by Tavistock titled “The Human Element” The file includes an agenda and list of attendees for the symposium, paper from the symposium and some correspondence. Also a copy of “New Technology in Water Services”.
Action Research, SA/TIH/B/2/106, 1 file- This project worked towards a paper on the conception of action research and its boundaries with other sorts of scientific and professional activities carried out in social systems. Includes handwritten notes, transcriptions and the final paper.
British Association of Settlements and Social Action Centres, SA/TIH/B/2/107, 1 file- This project was a one year action research to help the British Association of Settlements and Social Action Centres (BASSAC) to promote and develop community care. the items include Proposal for an Action Research Programme to Develop and Disseminate Community Care Practices Within BASSAC, background notes and correspondence.
Care for Carers, SA/TIH/B/2/108, 4 files- The Care for Carers project related to the evaluation of cases of carers in the UK and was examined using anonymous questionnaires Including questionnaires and fieldwork materials.
Academy of Commerce and Tourism, SA/TIH/B/2/109, 1 file- This was a one week residential training course on “The Person, The Group, The Organization” run by Tavistock. Including background information and a timetable.
St. Mary Abbots, SA/TIH/B/2/110, 1 file- Project focussing on a hospital action programme at St Marry Abbots Hospital relating to the difficulties in staff morale. Includes the proposal for the project, correspondence and working notes.
Donnelly Mirrors, SA/TIH/B/2/111, 1 file- Copy of Participative Management at Work: an interview with John F. Donnelly and correspondence with Erich Miller at Tavistock.
Manpower Services Commission, SA/TIH/B/2/112, 1 file- Funding Study User Guide aimed at Manpower Services Commission staff providing guidance on approaches which will be common to several component studies and background information.
Mid Wales Development Project, SA/TIH/B/2/113, 1 file- A consultancy project with the Mid Wales Development group to contribute to improved effectiveness in their work in Aberystwyth, Brecon, Shrewsbury and the surrounding areas. Includes interview write-ups, correspondence and notes.
Notting Hill Housing Trust, SA/TIH/B/2/114, 1 file- A consultancy with Tavistock to help the Trust to create a new structure for their business. includes Notes of meetings and the current structure as well as correspondence.
Richmond Education Department, SA/TIH/B/2/115, 1 file- Documents relating to a workshop held by Richmond council with consultancy from Tavistock on their business structure and plans. Includes notes and correspondence.
Worker Co-operatives, SA/TIH/B/2/116, 7 files- The Worker Co-Operative study focussed on forms of organisation, types of employment, working conditions and industrial relations in co-operatives, collectives or other self-managing structures that seek to be economically viable. It largely concentrated on worker co-operatives rather than agricultural or consumer co-operatives. Specific attention was given to developments in Britain, France and Italy but material was gathered from other EEC countries. The project lasted for one year and included a systematic review of existing experience and research in Britain, France and Italy, Developing a conceptual framework to interpret and describe this material and Identifying appropriate sub-contractors to pursue national studies within an agreed framework.
Institute Development Fund, SA/TIH/B/2/117, 1 file- Papers relating to proposals to the Institute Development Fund including memos and correspondence.
Fair Employment Agency Recruitment Study, SA/TIH/B/2/118, 1 file- This project focussed on the effects of the government’s 1987 document “Religious Equality of Opportunity in Employment: a Guide to Effective Practice” at Northern Ireland Electricity. It looked at the ways the company was reacting to the paper and suggested ways in which they could improve their working. Including fieldnotes, reports and correspondence.
Small to Medium Enterprises, SA/TIH/B/2/119, 3 files- Project focussing on the inner workings of participative practices in small to medium-sized enterprises for a commission of European communities task group. The project comprises of case study reports on several enterprises and field notes.
Inner City Explorations, SA/TIH/B/2/120, 1 file- Project papers relating to seminars discussing voluntary and community groups working in inner cities including the aspects of work that may take place within the inner city and a possible institute wide programme to be used as a basis for applications for funding. The seminars touched on a possible newsletter and political aspects of inner city work.
Informal Carers, SA/TIH/B/2/121, 17 files- This study focussed on informal carers, defined as a person who takes primary responsibility in the home for the care of a person who, because of handicap or illness, needs almost continuous care. The aims of the project were to enhance developments and promote new initiatives in the voluntary sector in supporting informal carers in specific local authority areas in order to demonstrate the value of these, to provide reports for use in other areas to promote support for informal carers and engage with other developments on a wide front, to monitor outcomes and to identify indicators for the future in terms of support for carers and to exercise the department’s management responsibility to the project.
Small Factory Project, SA/TIH/B/2/122, 11 files- Project looking at the workings of a plant in Northern Georgia including meeting notes, field notes on the staff and interview transcripts.
Vocational Education and Training, SA/TIH/B/2/123, 13 files- The Vocational Education and Training (VET) project looked at opportunities for vocational improvement in Britain. The project followed on from previous work in the employment policy and vocational training field. This specific study was proposed to look into the professions of chartered accountants, personnel officers, computer programmers, technician engineers, quality and building surveying technicians, agricultural foreman’s, travel clerks, and operating theatre assistants and to understand how VET provision is shaped. This involved examinations of the planning and decision making processes of organisations such as polytechnics, colleges and universities. It was designed to last for six months and to use background research and interviews to create a final report.
Worker organisation Project, SA/TIH/B/2/124, 4 files- The Worker Organisation Project aimed to investigate the ways in which political, social and economic variables affect the form of work organisation and the processes by which these forms change over time. The four elements of operational approach were a comparative study of two apparently similar organisations which display dissimilar forms of work organisation, we would aim to identify the different assumptions, values and ideologies that lead to the development of the different forms of work organisation. A Longtitudinal study of change in accountancy systems, to see how new forms of technology were processed through the organisation to become part of a particular form of work organisation and utilising existing contacts and previous research results and possible differences in work organisation changes that have been initiated.
PASTORE, SA/TIH/B/2/125, 1 file- Correspondence, articles and other papers relating to Elliot Stern’s work with the Fondaxione Giulio Pastore on the quality of working life in industrialised countries. It should be noted that several items are in French.
Initiative for Research in Informatics Applied to Society Project, SA/TIH/B/2/126, 1 file- The council of the Commission of the European Communities requested a detailed analysis of the possibilities of IRIS and decided to have an inventory compiled for the community countries. This work was undertaken by Tavistock and relied on research and group meetings to compile inventories which are included.
FAST Project, SA/TIH/B/2/127, 1 file- The objective of the FAST study was to develop a new conceptualisation of the service sector which focused on the role of technological change in the past and in the future in shaping the contribution of the service sector to regional economic development. For the purpose of the study services will be defined as those activities which meet the needs of households and businesses that such units cannot of choose not to provide themselves. The FAST project came in two phases. The material comprises of correspondence and fieldnotes for Phase II.
Learning at Work, SA/TIH/B/2/128, 5 files- The Learning at Work project was one of several Tavistock projects that focussed on vocational education and training. It focussed mainly on youth opportunities and the context of these opportunities. The material is comprised of correspondence, field notes, working notes and papers, and reports.
Rolls Royce Technical College, SA/TIH/B/2/129, 1 file- The work of Tavistock with the Rolls Royce Technical College followed on from their previous projects focussing on vocational training and education in the workplace with a focus on young people. The material includes, correspondence, field notes, meeting notes and drafts of papers and reports.
Seahorse Project, SA/TIH/B/2/130, 39 files- The Seahorse Project came in two distinct phases. Phase I was a feasibility study that explored the potential of telematics in the provision of information and support for people affected by HIV/AIDS. It emphasised user empowerment as a means for more active and informed involvement of patients in making healthcare decisions. Stage 1 of the project undertook needs assessment work, which in turn led to a technical specification for developing and testing pilot demonstrators.
Phase II focussed on the support, empowerment and awareness for HIV/AIDS the on-line research and self-help exchange. The second phase of the project was developing a common European-wide ‘Information Corpus’ in the HIV/AIDS field. This, in conjunction with database, navigation and evaluation tools, provided a ‘European Clearing House’ for HIV/AIDS, that will supply the building blocks for local information and support services being piloted in several European countries. The Clearing House supported peer-validated information and support, storage and dissemination and the development of ‘quality marks’ for HIV/AIDS. It incorporated tools and infrastructure for the evolution of evidence-based protocols for complementary therapies, using ‘virtual meta-analysis’. The overall aim was to develop a European standards benchmark for HIV/AIDS information and support services.
Lighthouse Project, SA/TIH/B/2/131, 25 files- The Lighthouse was a high-profile centre for those affected by HIV and AIDS. Tavistock conducted an evaluation of the centre’s workings, conductive evaluative research to assess how far the Lighthouse was achieving its own service targets in ways consistent with its own philosophy, to develop methods that adequately measure the quality of care and services achieved by the Lighthouse, to examine how the way the Lighthouse was organised and managed supports and was consistent with its service objectives, to identify possible improvements in services and related organisation and how these might be implemented. The evaluation also specified the impact of Lighthouse services on other service providers, the contribution of internal service practice to changing external attitudes, the impacts of the Lighthouse on social networks that include partners, carers and families, the interdependencies between different Lighthouse services and how they are co-ordinated, the nature of management practice and the extent to which services depend on management rather than the extraordinary efforts of individuals, the effectiveness of quality assurance mechanisms, the often highly qualitative criteria for assessing Lighthouse services.
Tavistock used several methods to evaluate lighthouse including observation of meetings and facilities, assessing and analysing the Lighthouse records, structured and semi-structured interviews, self-administered questions, diaries and logs, documentary analysis, feedback and validation.
Westminster Hospital Project, SA/TIH/B/2/132, 1 file- For the Westminster Hospital Project, Tavistock was brought in to examine the problems that were arising as a result of the 1984 merger between the Westminster Hospital Medical School and the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School to for the Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School which was part of a series of mergers between several medical schools across London in the early 1980’s.